Providing evidence that bacon, eggs, and meat may be good for you, or not as bad we had previously thought.
Next to the topic, in parentheses, is my current opinion, which is subject to change e.g. Fat (Good). These are generalizations, for instance, if I say carbs
are bad I do not mean that you should eat 0 carbs. Or, if you’re a high performance athlete such as Michael Phelps, you probably need a high carb intake for
quick source of energy.
A lot of people do fine and are healthy on high carb diets. However, I do think a lot _more_ see the same effects on a low-carb, high-fat diet.
An individual’s sensitivity to carbohydrates varies greatly.
I used to be a paleo-dieter while believing a vegan diet was unnatural and unhealthy until I realized that the “unnatural” argument is an argumentative fallacy.
I also learned that the “unhealthy” argument is simply not true.
Here’s a 71 part video series that critiques the paleo-diet:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=egqf7k5Lzhk – Part 1 of 71 [Video]
State of Affairs:
Americans are eating what we’ve been told to eat – less fat, more grains and starches – yet we’ve been getting fatter and fatter. — Nutrition Science Initiative
Why Most Published Research Findings Are False — PLoS Med 2(8): e124. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020124
“That question has been central to Ioannidis’s career. He’s what’s known as a meta-researcher, and he’s become one of the world’s foremost experts on the
credibility of medical research. He and his team have shown, again and again, and in many different ways, that much of what biomedical researchers conclude
in published studies—conclusions that doctors keep in mind when they prescribe antibiotics or blood-pressure medication, or when they advise us to consume
more fiber or less meat, or when they recommend surgery for heart disease or back pain—is misleading, exaggerated, and often flat-out wrong. He charges
that as much as 90 percent of the published medical information that doctors rely on is flawed. His work has been widely accepted by the medical community;
it has been published in the field’s top journals, where it is heavily cited; and he is a big draw at conferences.” — David H. Freedman’s article on Dr. John Ioannidis
Videos & Documentaries:
Fat Head — Tom Naughton, Fat Head — Takes a crack at the Saturated Fat and Cholesterol Myth
Did Cooking Make Us Human? — Horizon 2009-2010, BBC
In Search of the Perfect Human Diet — An evolutionary approach to eating
Science For Smart People — An entertaining talk about separating the good studies from the bad
Why We Get Fat: And What to Do About It — Gary Taubes, acclaimed science writer
Good Calories, Bad Calories: Fats, Carbs, and the Controversial Science of Diet and Health — Gary Taubes, acclaimed science writer
Cholesterol and Saturated Fat Prevent Heart Disease – Evidence from 101 Scientific Papers — David Evans, blogger and researcher, healthydietsandscience.blogspot.com
Low Cholesterol Leads To An Early Death – Evidence from 101 Scientific Papers — David Evans, blogger and researcher, healthydietsandscience.blogspot.com
Wheat Belly: Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to Health — Dr. William Davis, cardiologist, trackyourplaque.com
Debunking & Critiques :
The Red Meat Study Scare: What Do We Make Of It? — Critique of the March 2012 Harvard Study
The China Study: Fact or Fallacy? — Critique of The China Study — Denise Minger, Raw Food SOS
“Forks Over Knives”: Is the Science Legit? (A Review and Critique) — Critique of documentary, Forks Over Knives, by Denise Minger
The Truth About Ancel Keys: We’ve All Got It Wrong — Denise Minger, Raw Food SOS
The Carbohydrate Hypothesis of Obesity: a Critical Examination — Stephan Guyenet Ph.D.
Meat (Not a problem) :
Whole egg consumption improves lipoprotein profiles and insulin sensitivity to a greater extent than yolk-free egg substitute in individuals with metabolic syndrome — Metabolism – Clinical and Experimental
Volume 62, Issue 3 , Pages 400-410, March 2013
Meat consumption and diet quality and mortality in NHANES III — European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication 13 March 2013; doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2013.59
Diets high in meat keep the bones healthy — Reference to: Journal of Nutrition 2003 Apr;133(4):1020-6
Zinc bioavailability from beef is about fourfold greater than from a high-fiber breakfast cereal — Reference to: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1993 Dec;58(6):902-7
Nutrient in Eggs and Meat May Influence Gene Expression from Infancy to Adulthood — Reference to: The FASEB Journal, 2012; 26 (8): 3563 DOI: 10.1096/fj.12-207894
Low consumption of animal protein, fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and red meat is associated with higher rates of heart disease — Reference to: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999 Aug;70(2):221-7
Nonheme-iron absorption from a phytate-rich meal is increased by the addition of small amounts of pork meat. — Reference to: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003 Jan;77(1):173-9
Particle Size & LCAT Analysis Shows: Three Whole Eggs per Day Improve Lipid Profile in Men & Women W/ MetSyn. Plus: Up to 700% Increased Lipid Oxidation in Hardboiled vs. Fresh Omega-3 Eggs From Hens on Fish Oil Enriched Diet
Eating liver is associated with a reduction in stomach cancer — Reference to: International Journal of Cancer 2002 Jun 10;99(5):727-31
Men who consume higher quantities of foods of animal origin have lower rates of heart disease — Reference to: British Medical Journal 1977 Nov 19;2(6098):1307-14
Eating meat is associated with better mental health — Reference to International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2012 Jun 7;9(1):67
[Unprocessed] Red meat is associated with a reduced risk of diabetes — Reference to American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2012 Mar;95(3):752-8
Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease — American Journal of Clinical Nutrition March 2010 vol. 91 no. 3 535-546
Meat may help to lower the incidence of demineralization and white spots on teeth — Reference to Minerva Stomatologica 2010 Nov-Dec;59(11-12):583-91
Frequent consumption of red meat is not risk factor for cancer — Reference to British Medical Journal 1997 Oct 18;315(7114):1018
Fats (Good if not Transitive or PUFA) :
Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease in men: cohort follow up study in the United States Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease in men: cohort follow up study in the United States. — British Medical Journal. 1996 Jul 13;313(7049):84-90.
Fats and Cholesterol: Out with the Bad, In with the Good – Harvard School of Public Health
High levels of saturated fat and cholesterol consumption are associated with a reduced risk of multiple sclerosis —
Reference to: American Journal of Epidemiology 2000 Dec 1;152(11):1056-64
Trans Fat Fight Claims Butter as a Victim — Kim Serverson, The New York Times
In postmenopausal women, a greater saturated fat intake is associated with less heart disease, whereas a low saturated fat intake is associated with the biggest increase in blocked arteries — Reference to: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 80, No. 5, 1175-1184, November 2004
What if bad fat isn’t so bad? Nina Teicholz, Men’s Health
Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease — American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, March 2010 Vol. 91 no. 3 535-546
Dietary saturated fat and fibre and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality among type 1 diabetic patients — Reference to: Diabetologia 2012 Aug;55(8):2132-41
Effect of a high saturated fat and no-starch diet on serum lipid subfractions in patients with documented atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease — Mayo Clin Proc. 2003 Nov;78(11):1331-6.
Men who consume the most fat and saturated fat live longer and have a lower risk of dying from heart disease — Reference to: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1980 Aug;33(8):1818-27
Men who consume the most cholesterol, meat and saturated fat live the longest — Reference to: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1989 Nov;50(5):1095-103
The All Fat Diet — Lew Rockwell Show w/ Peter Attia, M.D [Audio]
Men who consume the most animal fat have a 10% reduced risk of heart disease — Reference to: British Journal of Nutrition 1993 Mar;69(2):303-14
Middle-aged men and women who consume the most saturated fat live longer and have a reduced risk of dying from cardiovascular diseases — Reference to: Journal of Internal Medicine 2005 Aug;258(2):153-65
HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL AND CANCER INCIDENCE: DATA FROM THE FRAMINGHAM HEART STUDY — Reference to: Journal of American College of Cardiology 2012;59(13s1):E1764-E1764
Effect of dietary fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins. A meta- analysis of 27 trials — Reference to: Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis Vol 12, 911-919
Increasing dietary saturated fat is associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk — Reference to: American Journal of Epidemiology 1992 Dec 1;136(11):1327-37
Higher regular fat dairy consumption is associated with lower incidence of metabolic syndrome but not type 2 diabetes — Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2012 Sep 26. pii: S0939-4753(12)00193-7.
Higher saturated fat and cholesterol consumption is associated with a lower risk of dementia — Reference to: Neurology 2002 Dec 24;59(12):1915-21
Influence of Dietary Saturated Fat Content on Adiposity, Macrophage Behavior, Inflammation, and Metabolism: Composition Matters — Journal of Lipid Research 2012 Oct 28.
Fat loving toddlers grow up to be leaner adults — Reference to International Journal of Obesity (Lond). 2012 Nov 13.
Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts — Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2012, 9:34 doi:10.1186/1550-2783-9-34
Association of dietary fat, vegetables and antioxidant micronutrients with skin ageing in Japanese women — Reference to British Journal of Nutrition 2010 May;103(10):1493-8. Epub 2010 Jan 20.
High-fat diets reduce inflammation compared to low fat diets — Reference to Lipids 2008 Jan;43(1):65-77
Low intake of dietary fat is associated with higher rates of hypothalamic amenorrhea — Reference to Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation 1994 Jan-Mar;1(1):84-8
Higher fat consumption is associated with lower rates of colon cancer — Reference to International Journal of Cancer 2010 Aug 15;127(4):942-51
New evidence reveals that saturated fat does not increase the risk of cardiovascular disease — Andrew Mente, PhD
Assistant Professor, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, DairyNutrition
Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity. — Lipids. 2009 Jul;44(7):593-601. doi: 10.1007/s11745-009-3306-6. Epub 2009 May 13.
Effect of Low and High Fat Diets on Nutrient Intakes and Selected Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Sedentary Men and Women — Journal of the American College if Nutrition April 2004 vol. 23 no. 2 131-140
Timed high-fat diet resets circadian metabolism and prevents obesity — FASEB J. 2012 Aug;26(8):3493-502. doi: 10.1096/fj.12-208868. Epub 2012 May 16.
Carbs & Sugar Related (A carby heavy diet can be bad for weightloss) :
Sugar: The Bitter Truth — Robert H. Lustig, MD, UCSF Professor of Pediatrics in the Division of Endocrinology & Metabolism [Video]
Sugar: The Bitter Truth (The SHORT Version) — Sean Croxton, Underground Wellness [Video]
Big Fat Lies — Gary Taubes, acclaimed science writer, @Stevens Institute of Technology [Video]
What if It’s All Been a Big Fat Lie? — Gary Taubes, The New York Times
Eating Lots of Carbs, Sugar May Raise Risk of Cognitive Impairment, Mayo Clinic Study Finds — Mayo Clinic
Big Sugar’s Sweet Little Lies — Mother Jones, Gary Taubes and Cristin Kearns Couzens
Artificial sweetener users are significantly more likely than nonusers to gain weight — Reference to: Preventive Medicine 1986 Mar;15(2):195-202
Are artificial sweeteners fueling-rather than fighting-the escalating obesity epidemic? — Reference to: Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008 Aug;16(8):1894-900
Consumption of cola and fruit drinks is associated with an increased risk of type two diabetes — Reference to Diabetes Care 2008 Jul;31(7):1311-7
Safety and Efficacy of Diets Low in Carbohydrates — Ancestral Weight Loss Registry, a list of 25 clinical studies
Growth failure. A complication of dietary treatment of hypercholesterolemia. — Am J Dis Child. 1989 May;143(5):537-42.
Sugar restriction: the evidence for a drug-free intervention to reduce cardiovascular disease risk — Intern Med J. 2012 Oct;42 Suppl 5:46-58. doi: 10.1111/j.1445-5994.2012.02902.x.
Soda consumption and the risk of stroke in men and women. — Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 May;95(5):1190-9. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.030205. Epub 2012 Apr 4.
G’bye to low-fat diets — Center for Medical Consumers, on the Cochran Studies (important)
“Despite decades of effort and many thousands of people randomized [into clinical trials], there is still only limited and inconclusive
evidence of the effects of modification of total, saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fats on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.”
“No Sugar, No Starch” Diet Overview: A Version of a Very Low Carbohydrate Diet — Eric C. Westman, MD, MHS, Lifestyle Medicine Clinic, Duke University Medical Center [Video] — Eat fat, reduce carbs, lose weight healthy
“No Sugar, No Starch” Diet: Getting Started — Lifestyle Medicine Clinic, Duke University Medical Center, Guidelines — What to eat?
A TO Z: A Comparative Weight Loss Study — Standford School of Medicine
— Atkins results: 1. Weight loss 2. HDL rises 3. Triglycerides drops 4. Blood pressure drops 5. LDL rises slightly 6. Total cholesterol, roughly the same
Low-Fat Diet Not a Cure-All — Harvard School of Public Health, summary of Women’s Health Initiative study. See below:
“The largest study ever to ask whether a low-fat diet reduces the risk of getting cancer has found that the diet has no effect.” — The Result of the Women’s Health Initiative Study
The Battle of the Diets: Is Anyone Winning (At Losing?) — Christopher Gardner, PhD, assistant professor of medicine, Stanford Prevention Research Center
Four-Year Follow-up after Two-Year Dietary Interventions — N Engl J Med 2012; 367:1373-1374
— The 6-year weight loss was significant for the Mediterranean group and the low-carbohydrate group but not for the low-fat group.
Weight and Metabolic Outcomes After 2 Years on a Low-Carbohydrate Versus Low-Fat Diet: A Randomized Trial — Annals of Internal Medicine. 3 August 2010;153(3):147-157
Prolonged meat diets with a study of kidney action and ketosis — The Journal of Biological Chemistry 1931, 87:651–668.
Comparison of high-fat and high-protein diets with a high-carbohydrate diet in insulin-resistant obese women — Diabetologia. 2005 Jan;48(1):8-16. Epub 2004 Dec 23.
Adherence to Mediterranean diet and health status: meta-analysis — British Medical Journal. 2008; 337: a1344.
Long-term effects of a ketogenic diet in obese patients — Exp Clin Cardiol. 2004 Fall; 9(3): 200–205.
A collection of studies to look at — NuSI
Cholesterol (Don’t worry about it):
Lipid Researcher, 98, Reports On the Dietary Causes of Heart Disease — ScienceDaily
Are all diets the same? — Michael R. Eades, M.D.,Protein Power
High cholesterol significantly reduces the risk of breast cancer — Reference to: Ethnicity and Disease 2012 Summer;22(3):281-7
Low cholesterol levels lead to an increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke — Reference to: Annalls of Indian Academy of Neurology 2012 Jan;15(1):19-22
High cholesterol significantly reduces the risk of breast cancer — Reference to: Ethnicty and Disease 2012 Summer;22(3):281-7
Low cholesterol levels associated with poor outcome in patients hospitalized with heart failure — Reference to: Journal of Cardiac Failure 2012 Mar;18(3):194-201
Older men with lower cholesterol die earlier — Reference to: European Heart Journal 2001 Apr;22(7):573-9
Alzheimer’s patients have significantly reduced levels of cholesterol and fats in the brain — Reference to: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders 1998 Sep;12(3):198-203
Low LDL cholesterol levels are associated with an earlier death — Reference to: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 2009;100:63-70
Low cholesterol levels are associated with an inreased risk of death in critically ill surgical patients — Reference to: Critical Care Medicine 2001 Aug;29(8):1563-8
Low HDL cholesterol levels increase the risk of gastric cancer — Reference to: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2012 Oct;27(10):1635-40
Low cholesterol levels are associated with an increase in cerebral hemorrhage rates — Reference to Preventive Medicine 1980 Nov;9(6):722-40
Low levels of LDL cholesterol increase the risk of gallstone disease — Reference to Journal of Hepatology 2012 Aug 21
Higher cholesterol levels predict survival in heart transplant patients — Reference to Cardiology 1998 Mar;89(3):184-8
Low cholesterol levels are associated with an increased risk of suicidal behaviour — Reference to Psychiatria Polska 1996 Sep-Oct;30(5):699-712
High cholesterol levels predict higher survival rates in patients with acute coronary syndromes — Reference to Clinical Cardiology 2009 Sep;32(9):E22-8
Women with higher cholesterol levels have significantly higher bone mineral density — Reference to Journal of Womens Health 2006 Apr;15(3):261-70
Low levels of low density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are associated with higher death rates in patients with acute heart failure — Reference to Congestive Heart Failure 2012 Oct 16
Low cholesterol levels may lead to permanent psychomotor, cognitive, motorsystem damage, hypoadrenalism and infertility in both males and females — Reference to Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad 2010 Jul-Sep;22(3):225-7
Small particle size LDL cholesterol associated with diabetes – Low fat diets lead to small particle size LDL cholesterol — Reference to Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 1995 Nov;15(11):1805-11
Cholesterol lowering treatment increases the risk of death — Reference to Circulation 1990 Dec;82(6):1916-24
Is Everything You Know About Cholesterol Wrong? Pt 1 — Dr Oz Show [VIDEO]
Is Everything You Know About Cholesterol Wrong? Pt 2 — Dr Oz Show [VIDEO]
A low-fat diet decreases high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels by decreasing HDL apolipoprotein transport rates. — Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1990 Jan;85(1):144-51.
Lipid Researcher, 98, Reports On the Dietary Causes of Heart Disease — ScienceDaily, reference to Fred A. Kummerow. Interaction between sphingomyelin and oxysterols contributes to atherosclerosis and sudden death. American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease, 2013; 3 (1): 17-26
Grains (Can be fattening) :
Wheat bran inhibits the absorption of nonheme dietary iron — Reference to: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1981 Aug;34(8):1469-78
Remission without insulin therapy on gluten-free diet in a 6-year old boy with type 1 diabetes mellitus — Reference to: BMJ Case Rep. 2012 Jun 21;2012. pii: bcr0220125878. doi: 10.1136/bcr.02.2012.5878.
Modern wheat a “perfect, chronic poison,” doctor says — CBS News w/ Dr. William Davis [Video]
Soy (?) :
Soy Alert! — Weston A. Price Foundation
Soy consumption inhibits the bioavailability of iron — Reference to: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1992 Sep;56(3):573-8
The inhibitory effect of soy products on nonheme iron absorption in man — Reference to: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1981 Dec;34(12):2622-9
High soy consumption significantly increases the risk of prostate cancer — Reference to: British Journal of Cancer 2004 May 4;90(9):1792-5
Low cholesterol levels are associated with increased stroke severity and increased short- and long-term death rates — Reference to: Cerebrovascular Diseases 2012 Sep 18;34(3):213-220
Low cholesterol levels are associated with lower survival rates in stroke patients — Reference to: European Journal of Neurology 2012 Apr;19(4):648-54
High soy consumption associated with an 18% increased risk of diabetes — Reference to European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011 Feb;65(2):279-82
Exercise (Good) :
Effects of moderate-intensity endurance and high-intensity intermittent training on anaerobic capacity and VO2max — American College of Sports Medicine. 1996 Oct;28(10):1327-30.
Walk, don’t run, to prevent or reverse metabolic syndrome — Reference to: American Journal of Cardiology, December 15, 2007
Minutes of hard exercise can lead to all-day calorie burn – American Physiological Society
Hunter-gatherer eating and like cultures:
Earliest Archaeological Evidence of Persistent Hominin Carnivory — Ferraro JV, Plummer TW, Pobiner BL, Oliver JS, Bishop LC, et al. (2013) Earliest Archaeological Evidence of Persistent Hominin Carnivory. PLoS ONE 8(4): e62174. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062174
Longevity Among Hunter-Gatherers: A Cross-Cultural Examination — Reference to: Population and Development Review 33:2 (2007) 321-365
Gut microbiota, immune development and function — Reference to: Pharmacol Res. 2012 Sep 16. pii: S1043-6618(12)00166-1
Old Bones Hint At Fatal Neanderthal Flaw
Neanderthal diet at Vindija and Neanderthal predation: The evidence from stable isotopes — Study (PDF)
The Evolution of Hominin Diets Integrating Approaches to the Study of Palaeolithic Subsistence Study (PDF)
The Beneficial Effects of a Paleolithic Diet on Type 2 Diabetes and Other Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease — J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2009 November; 3(6): 1229–1232.
Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study. — Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2009 Jul 16;8:35.
Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type die — Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Aug;63(8):947-55. Epub 2009 Feb 11.
Dr. Cordain’s Top 10 Published Research Articles — On Paleolithic eating
A Paleolithic diet confers higher insulin sensitivity, lower C-reactive protein and lower blood pressure than a cereal-based diet in domestic pigs — Nutrition & Metabolism 2006, 3:39 doi:10.1186/1743-7075-3-39
Anthropological Research Reveals Human Dietary Requirements for Optimal Health — Journal of Applied Nutrition, 1982, 16:1:38-45
The Real Caveman Diet — Brian Palmer, Slate
Meat Consumption: Evolution and Progress — European Journal of Clinical Nutrition December 2002, Volume 56, Number 12, Pages 1270-1278
Humans feasting on grains for at least 100,000 years — Katherine Harmon, The Scientific American, December 17, 2009
Features of a successful therapeutic fast of 382 days’ duration — Postgraduate Medical Journal (March 1973) 49, 203-209.
Ketogenic diets and physical performance — Nutrition & Metabolism 2004, 1:2 doi:10.1186/1743-7075-1-2
How Did Atkins Die? The Truth About Atkins’ Death — Laura Dolson, About.com Guide
Breast feeding is associated with a decreased risk of been overweight in later life — Reference to American Journal of Epidemiology 2005 Sep 1;162(5):397-403